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Syllabus for Leadership in International and Public Affairs at Columbia University, Spring 2001, U6895
Thomas D. Zweifel

Leadership in International and Public Affairs

Thomas D. Zweifel

Thursdays 210-4pm, Room 1101 IAB.

Office Hours:
Thursdays 1-2pm, Room 1321 IAB.

Five hundred years ago, Niccoló Machiavelli’s The Prince taught a ruling elite how to hold on to power. That model of leadership may have worked for the military-industrial age, but it is used up today. In this age of knowledge workers and virtual teams, the border-less economy and free agents, the rules have changed. The days of the big leader – Churchill or Kennedy, even Gates or Welch – are numbered. The explosion of free markets worldwide, the unparalleled access to knowledge through the Internet, the democratization of regimes and the flattening of organizational hierarchies give ordinary people the opportunity to express leadership unlike ever before. We can now shape our own destinies, and those of our organizations and societies, to an extent never before thought possible. Democracy and the cyber age call for a new kind of leadership – but what kind?

“Leadership in International and Public Affairs” explores this question in theory and in practice. Assignments are designed for learning and applying theory, but also for thrusting students into leading. The course aims to prepare students for understanding and exercising executive ability in government, non-governmental and transnational organizations, and international business.

The course is in two parts. The first part (sessions 2-6) teaches rival theories and fundamental components of leadership. The second part (sessions 7-14) applies leadership to the international, public, nonprofit, and private sectors.

Required Readings:
A Course Reader is available for purchase at Village Copier, 115th Street, off Broadway.
Required books are available at Labyrinth Books, 536 W 112 Street, off Broadway.

  • Allison, Graham. 1971. Essence of Decision: Explaining The Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: HarperCollins.

  • Gardner, Howard. 1995. Leading Minds: An Anatomy of Leadership. New York: Basic Books.

  • Machiavelli, Niccoló. [1505] 1961. The Prince. London: Penguin Classics.

  • Northouse, Peter G. 1997. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications.

  • Slater, Robert. 1999. Jack Welch and the GE Way: Management Insights and Leadership Secrets of the Legendary CEO. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Requirements and Grading:

  • Completion of all required readings and attendance of all classes.

  • Active class participation (20% of grade).

  • Team presentation and facilitation of a case (30% of grade).

  • Final exam (50% of grade).

Schedule (subject to change):
Introduction (1/18/01)
Overview. Requirements. Introductions. Q&A. Teams and cases (who / how to prepare / how to facilitate).

History is made by the victors; so is leadership history. The New Human Agenda. Definitions of leadership. Leadership: art or science? Can leadership be learned? Identify the leader you most admire. Your own life as a leadership laboratory.

1. Leadership and Power (1/25/01)
Power. Trait leadership. Assigned vs. emergent leadership. The charismatic leader.

  • Machiavelli, Niccoló. 1961. The Prince. London: Penguin Classics.

  • Kets de Vries, M.F.R. 1994. “Leadership Mystique, Academy of Management Executive,” vol.8, 73-92. Academy of Management.

  • Northouse, Peter G. 1997. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Chapters 1 (Introduction), 2 (Trait Approach), 3 (Style Approach).

Read (recommended):

  • Bennis, Warren G. and Burt Nanus. 1985. Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge. New York: Harper & Row.

  • Stogdill, R.M. 1948. “Personal Factors Associated with Leadership: A survey of the literature,” Journal of Psychology 25. 35-71.

  • 1974. Handbook of Leadership: A survey of theory and research. New York: Free Press.

Can/should Jeffrey Immelt fill Jack Welch’s shoes? George Marshall.

2. Leadership and Morality (2/1/01)
Principles and dilemmas of moral and ethical leadership. “Right vs. right” decisions.

  • Northouse, chapter 12 (Popular Approaches to Leadership).

  • Greyser, Stephen A. 1992. “Johnson & Johnson: The Tylenol Tragedy,” Harvard Business School Case 583043.

  • Messick, David M. and Max H. Bazerman, “Ethical Leadership and the Psychology of Decision Making,” Sloan Management Review, Winter 1996, 9-22.

Read (recommended):

  • Block, Peter. 1993. Stewardship: Choosing service over self-interest. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

  • Covey, Stephen R. 1991. Principle-Centered Leadership. New York: Summit Books.

  • Goleman, Daniel. 1995. Emotional Intelligence.

  • Greenleaf, R. K. 1996. On Becoming a Servant Leader. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  • Kouzes, J. M. and Posner, B. Z. 1995. The Leadership Challenge: How to keep getting extraordinary things done in organizations. 2nd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Johnson&Johnson and Tylenol. Mohandas Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Dalai Lama, Nelson Mandela vs. Osama bin Laden.

3. Leadership and Management (2/8/01)
How do leaders differ from managers? Path-goal theory. Breakdowns as pathways to breakthroughs.

  • Northouse, chapter 6 (Path-Goal Theory).

  • Scherr, Allan L. 1989. “Managing for Breakthroughs in Productivity,” Human Resource Management 28:3 (Fall), 403-424.

  • Zaleznik, Abraham. 1992. “Managers and Leaders, Are They Different?” Harvard Business Review 3-92, Reprint # 92211, 126-138.

Read (recommended):

  • Barnard, Chester. 1938. The Functions of the Executive.

  • House, R.J. 1971. “A Path-Goal Theory of Leader Effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly 16. 321-328.

  • Kotter, John P. 1990. A Force for Change: How Leadership Differs from Management. New York: Free Press.

  • Senge, Peter. 1990. “The Leader’s New Work: Building Learning Organizations,” Sloan Management Review (Fall), Reprint #3211.

Thomas Watson Jr. and IBM. Martin Luther King and Roy Wilkins.

4. Leadership and Teams / Communication (2/15/01)
The transformational leader. Orchestra model of leadership. Productive vs. unproductive communication. Speaking vs. listening. Communication and change.

  • Northouse, chapters 8 (Transformational Leadership), 9 (Team Leadership Theory).

  • Drucker, Peter F. 1988. “The Coming of the New Organization.” HBR (Jan-Feb), 45-53..

  • Katzenbach, J.R. and Smith, D.K. 1993. The Wisdom of Teams. Ch.7 (130-149) and Ch.12 (239-259). Harvard Business School.

  • Zweifel, Thomas D. “Be Still and Hear: The art and science of listening is good business,” Christian Science Monitor, September 22, 1998.

  • 1998. “Listen Up!” Fast Company, December 1998.

Read (recommended):

  • Barge, J.K. 1994. Leadership: Communication skills for organizations and groups. New York: St. Martin’s.

Martin Luther King, Bill Clinton. Liz Claiborne, Kodak.

*** No Class *** (2/22/01)

5. Leadership and Empowerment / Coaching (3/1/01 + MAKEUP CLASS 6 TODAY!)
Leaders leading leaders. Coaching vs. management.

  • Flaherty, James. Coaching: Evoking Excellence in Others.

  • Northouse, chapters 7 (Leader-Member Exchange Theory).

  • Evered, Roger D. and James C. Selman. 1989. “Coaching and the Art of Management,” Organizational Dynamics (Autumn), 16-32.

  • Rothstein, Lawrence R. 1995. “The Empowerment Effort That Came Undone,” HBR Case (Jan-Feb), 20-23.

Read (recommended):

  • Graen, G.B. and M. Uhl-Bien. 1995. “Relationship-based Approach to Leadership: Development of a leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. Leadership Quarterly 6(2). 219-247.

  • Rapaport, Richard. 1993. “To Build a Winning Team: An Interview with Head Coach Bill Walsh,” HBR Reprint #93108.

Head Coach Bill Walsh. Jack Welch and GE.

6. Leadership and Organizational Change (3/1/01, 410pm-6pm MAKEUP CLASS)
Leadership and change management. Models of change. Why change programs don’t produce change.

  • Ancona, Deborah, Thomas Kochan, Maureen Scully, John Van Maanen, D. Eleanor Westney. 1996. Managing for the Future, Module 11: “Managing Change in Organizations.” 1-54. Cincinnati OH: South-Western College Publishing.

  • Beer, Michael, Russell A. Eisenstat and Bert Spector. 1990. “Why Change Programs Don’t Produce Change.” HBR Reprint # 90601, 158-166

  • Schaffer, Robert H. and Harvey A. Thompson. 1992. “Successful Change Programs Begin with Results,” HBR Reprint #92108.

  • Weick, Karl E. 1996. “Drop Your Tools: An Allegory for Organizational Studies,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 301-313.

Read (recommended):

  • Goss, Tracy, Richard Pascale, and Anthony Athos. 1993. “The Reinvention Roller Coaster: Risking the Present for a Powerful Future,” HBR Reprint #93603.

  • Kotter, John P. and James K. Leahy. 1993. “Changing the Culture at British Airways,” Harvard Business School Case, 9-419-009

Mikhail Gorbachev, Lou Gerstner and IBM, Sir Colin Marshall and British Airways.

7. Leadership and Vision / Strategy (3/8/01)
Vision vs. dream. Vision vs. prediction. Basics of strategy: core competencies, 5-forces model. Strategists vs. managers. Strategy-in-action.

  • Northouse, chapter 5 (Contingency Theory).

  • Beers, Michael C. 1996. “The Strategy That Wouldn’t Travel,” HBR Reprint #96602.

  • The Hunger Project. 1991. “Planning-in-Action: an innovative approach to human development.” New York: The Hunger Project.

  • Hamel, Gary and C.K. Prahalad. 1989. “Strategic Intent,” HBR Reprint #89308 (May-Jun), 63-76.

  • Hinterhuber and Popp. 1992. “Are You a Strategist or Just a Manager?” HBR Reprint # 92104, 105-113.

Read (recommended):

  • Fiedler, F.E. 1964. “A Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness,” in Berkowitz, L. (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. New York: Academic Press. Vol. 1, 149-190.

  • Hamel, Gary. 1996. “Strategy as Revolution,” HBR (Jul-Aug), 69-82.

Winston Churchill, Bill Gates, Andy Grove. “The Strategy That Wouldn’t Travel.”

*** Spring Break *** (3/15/01)

8. Leadership and Globalization (3/22/01)
Leadership and globalization. Costs of cultures colliding. Building a global leadership culture. Managing global high performance teams.

  • Northouse, chapters 4 (Situational Approach).

  • Gardner, Howard. 1995. Leading Minds, Ch.14: “Jean Monnet and Mahatma Gandhi: Leadership Beyond National Boundaries.”

  • Slater, Robert. 1999. Jack Welch and the GE Way: Management Insights and Leadership Secrets of the Legendary CEO. New York: McGraw-Hill.

  • Prahalad, C.K. and Lieberthal. 1997. “The End of Corporate Imperialism,” HBR.

  • Zweifel, Thomas D. 1995. “New, Genuine Leaders in Africa,” Christian Science Monitor, September 6, 1995.

Read (recommended):

  • Blanchard, Ken, D. Zigarmi and R. Nelson. 1985. Leadership and the One-Minute Manager: Increasing effectiveness through situational leadership. New York: William Morrow.

  • Handy, Charles. 1995. “Trust and the Virtual Organization,” Harvard Business Review, May-June. 40-50.

  • Schell, Michael and Charlene M. Solomon. 1997. Capitalizing on the Global Workforce. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Jean Monnet, Mohandas Gandhi, Douglas Daft and Coca-Cola, Jack Welch and GE, Ted Turner and CNN.

9. Political and Public Sector Leadership (3/29/01)
Legal-rational vs. charismatic leadership. Bureaucracy and leadership. Pitfalls.

  • Allison, Graham. 1971. Essence of Decision: Explaining The Cuban Missile Crisis.

  • Weber, Max. "Bureaucracy" in From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1946. Paper ed., 1958, pp. 196-244.

  • Jick, Todd D. 1995. “Lyndon Baines Johnson,” Harvard Business School Case 1-995-008.

Read (recommended):

  • Mandela, Nelson. 1995. The Long March to Freedom. New York: Little Brown & Co.

  • Neustadt, Richard. 1990. Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents.

  • Wilson, Woodrow. "The Study of Administration," Political Science Quarterly 2 (June 1887): 197-222.

Winston Churchill, Mohandas Gandhi, Mao Tse-Dong, Nelson Mandela.

10. Business Leadership (4/5/01)
Entrepreneurs vs. corporate leaders. Business vs. non-business leadership. Pitfalls of business leadership.

  • Gardner. 1995. Leading Minds, Ch.7: “Alfred P. Sloan, Jr.: The Business of America.”

  • Slater, Robert. 1999. Jack Welch and the GE Way: Management Insights and Leadership Secrets of the Legendary CEO. New York: McGraw-Hill. (cont’d)

Read (recommended):

  • Brands. 1999. Masters of Enterprise. New York: Free Press.

Entrepreneurs: John J. Astor, Bill Gates and Microsoft, Andy Grove and Intel, Liz Claiborne, Ted Turner and CNN. Corporate leaders: Alfred Sloan and GM, Thomas Watson and IBM, Robert Woodruff and Coca-Cola, Jack Welch and GE.

11. Nonprofit Leadership (4/12/01)
Principles of nonprofit leadership and management. Pitfalls of nonprofit leadership.

  • The Hunger Project. 1995. “Ending Hunger and the New Human Agenda.” New York:

  • The Hunger Project. 1996. “Unleashing the Human Spirit: Principles and Methodology of The Hunger Project.” New York:

  • Rao, Srikumar S. 1998. “Emperor of Peace Lives Again!” Forbes, September 7, 1998.

Read (recommended):

  • Drucker, Peter F., Managing the Nonprofit Sector: Principles and Practices. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 1990.

  • Ellis, Susan J., From the Top Down: The Executive Role in Volunteer Program Success, Philadelphia, PA: Energize, Inc, Revised Edition 1996.

Pope John XXIII, Joan Holmes and The Hunger Project, Mohamed Yunus and the Grameen Bank.

12. Women and Minorities Leadership (4/19/01)
A history of invisible leadership. Male vs. female leadership.

  • Northouse, chapter 11 (Women and Leadership).

  • Holmes, Joan. 1995. “Women’s Leadership and the New Human Agenda,” Statement to the Fourth Conference on Women, Beijing.

Read (recommended):

  • Branch, Shelley. 1989. Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954-63.

  • Ibarra, Herminia and Kristin M. Daly. 1995. "Gender Differences in Managerial Behavior: The Ongoing Debate," HBS Case 495038.

  • Rosener, J.B. "Ways Women Lead." HBR, 11/90. 119-125.

  • Mainiero, "Getting Anointed for Advancement: The Case of Executive Women." (AME 1994, V. 8, 3).

  • Sargent, A. 1981. The Androgynous Manager. New York: American Management Association Communications.

Eleanor Roosevelt. “Gender Differences in Managerial Behavior.” The Hunger Project.

13. Leadership and Stillness / Conclusions / Prognoses (4/26/01)
Summary. Discussion. Conclusions. Which theory is most useful – for what? Preparation for final exam.
Stillness, the compass of leaders. Psychodynamic approach. Invisible leadership.

  • Northouse, chapter 10 (Psychodynamic Approach).

  • Muoio, Anna. “We all go to the same place. Let us go there slowly.” Fast Company, May 2000. 194.

  • Zweifel, Thomas D. The Virtual Leader. Manuscript. Chapter 12: “Stillness: The Compass of Leaders.”

Read (recommended):

  • Freud, Sigmund. 1938. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud. A.A. Brill, ed. New York: Modern Library.

  • Gandhi, Mohandas K. [1927] 1992. An Autobiography, Or The Story of my experiments with truth. Ahmedabad: The Navajivan Trust.

  • Jung, Carl Gustav. 1923. Psychological Types. New York: Harcourt and Brace.

  • Mandela, Nelson R. 1994. Long Walk to Freedom. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Winston Churchill, Mohandas Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King.

15. Final Exam (5/10/00)

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