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Syllabus for Leadership in International and Public Affairs at Columbia University, Fall 2002, U6895
Thomas D. Zweifel

Leadership in International and Public Affairs

Thomas D. Zweifel, Ph.D.

Office Hours:
Office Hours: Thursdays 1-2pm and online.

In this age of knowledge workers and virtual teams, the border-less economy and free agents, the rules have changed. The days of the big leader -- Churchill or Kennedy, even Gates or Welch -- are numbered. The explosion of free markets worldwide, the unparalleled access to knowledge through the Internet, the democratization of regimes and the flattening of organizational hierarchies give ordinary people the opportunity to express leadership unlike ever before. We can now shape our own destinies, and those of our organizations and societies, to an extent never before thought possible. Democracy and the cyber age call for a new kind of leadership -- but what kind? What does it mean to be a leader in the age of globalization?

"Leadership in International and Public Affairs" explores this question in theory and in practice. Assignments are designed for learning and applying theory, but also for thrusting students into leading. The course aims to prepare students for understanding and exercising executive ability in government, non-governmental and transnational organizations, and international business.

The course is in two parts. The first part (sessions 2-6) teaches rival theories and fundamental components of leadership. The second part (sessions 7-14) applies leadership to the international, public, nonprofit, and private sectors.

Required Readings

A Course Reader is available for purchase at Village Copier, 115th Street, off Broadway.

Required books are available at Labyrinth Books, 536 W 112 Street, off Broadway, or from

Flaherty, James. 1999. Coaching: Evoking Excellence in Others. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Machiavelli, Niccoló. [1505] 1961. The Prince. London: Penguin Classics.

Northouse, Peter G. 1997. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications.

Zweifel, Thomas D. 2002. Communicate or Die. New York: Swiss Consulting Group.

Zweifel, Thomas D. 2002. Culture Clash. New York: Swiss Consulting Group.

Recommended Readings (useful for theory and case studies)

Allison, Graham. 1971. Essence of Decision: Explaining The Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: HarperCollins.

Gardner, Howard. 1995. Leading Minds: An Anatomy of Leadership. New York: Basic Books.

Requirements and Grading

Requirements and Grading:
  • Understanding of all required readings and attendance of all classes.

  • Active participation in class and on (20% of grade).

  • Team presentation and facilitation of a case study; team participation in breakthrough leadership project (25% of grade).

  • In-class midterm exam (25% of grade).

  • Final paper (30% of grade).

  • Session 1: Thursday - September 5, 2002


    Class Plan:
    Overview. Requirements. Introductions. Q&A. Teams and cases (who, how to prepare, how to facilitate) and for breakthrough projects.
    History is made by the victors; so is leadership history. The New Human Agenda. Definitions of leadership. Identify the leader you most admire. Your own life as a leadership laboratory.

    “Leading in Trying Times,” University of Michigan,

    Session 2: Thursday - September 12, 2002

    Leadership and Power

    Leadership: art or science? Can leadership be learned? Five types of power. Trait leadership. Assigned vs. emergent leadership. The charismatic leader.

    Kets de Vries, M.F.R. 1994. "Leadership Mystique, Academy of Management Executive," vol.8, 73-92. Academy of Management.
    Lukes, Steven. 1974. Power: A Radical View. London: Macmillan.
    Northouse, Peter G. 1997. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Chapters 1 (Introduction), 2 (Trait Approach), 3 (Style Approach).

    Read (recommended):
    Bennis, Warren G. and Burt Nanus. 1985. Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge. New York: Harper & Row.
    Stogdill, R.M. 1948. "Personal Factors Associated with Leadership: A survey of the literature," Journal of Psychology 25. 35-71.
    _______. 1974. Handbook of Leadership: A survey of theory and research. New York: Free Press.

    Can/should Jeffrey Immelt fill Jack Welch's shoes? George Marshall.

    Session 3: Thursday - September 19, 2002

    Leadership and Morality

    Principles and dilemmas of moral and ethical leadership. "Right vs. right" decisions.

    Machiavelli, Niccolo. 1961. The Prince. London: Penguin Classics.
    Northouse, chapter 12 (Popular Approaches to Leadership).
    Greyser, Stephen A. 1992. "Johnson & Johnson: The Tylenol Tragedy," Harvard Business School Case 583043.
    Messick, David M. and Max H. Bazerman, "Ethical Leadership and the Psychology of Decision Making," Sloan Management Review, Winter 1996, 9-22.

    Read (recommended):
    Block, Peter. 1993. Stewardship: Choosing service over self-interest. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
    Covey, Stephen R. 1991. Principle-Centered Leadership. New York:Summit Books.
    Goleman, Daniel. 1995. Emotional Intelligence.
    Greenleaf, R. K. 1996. On Becoming a Servant Leader. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Kouzes, J. M. and Posner, B. Z. 1995. The Leadership Challenge: How to keep getting extraordinary things done in organizations. 2nd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Johnson & Johnson and Tylenol. Mohandas Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Dalai Lama, Nelson Mandela vs. Osama bin Laden.

    Session 4: Thursday - September 26, 2002

    Leadership and Management MOVED TO 10/3/02, 1230-2PM

    How do leaders differ from managers? Path-goal theory. Breakdowns as pathways to breakthroughs.

    Northouse, chapter 6 (Path-Goal Theory).
    Scherr, Allan L. 1989. "Managing for Breakthroughs in Productivity," Human Resource Management 28:3 (Fall), 403-424.
    Zaleznik, Abraham. 1992. "Managers and Leaders, Are They Different?" Harvard Business Review 3-92, Reprint # 92211, 126-138.

    Read (recommended):
    Barnard, Chester. 1938. The Functions of the Executive.
    House, R.J. 1971. "A Path-Goal Theory of Leader Effectiveness." Administrative Science Quarterly 16. 321-328.
    Kotter, John P. 1990. A Force for Change: How Leadership Differs from Management. New York: Free Press.
    Senge, Peter. 1990. "The Leader's New Work: Building Learning Organizations," Sloan Management Review (Fall), Reprint #3211.

    Thomas Watson Jr. and IBM. Martin Luther King and Roy Wilkins.

    Session 5: Thursday - October 3, 2002

    Leadership and Communication/Teams

    The transformational leader. Orchestra model of leadership. Productive vs. unproductive communication. Speaking vs. listening. Communication and change.

    Northouse, chapters 8 (Transformational Leadership), 9 (Team Leadership Theory).
    Drucker, Peter F. 1988. "The Coming of the New Organization." HBR (Jan-Feb), 45-53..
    Katzenbach, J.R. and Smith, D.K. 1993. The Wisdom of Teams. Ch.7 (130-149) and Ch.12 (239-259). Harvard Business School.
    Zweifel, Thomas D. 2001. Communicate or Die. New York: Swiss Consulting Group.

    Read (recommended):
    Barge, J.K. 1994. Leadership: Communication skills for organizations and groups. New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Clampitt, Phillip G. 2001. Communicating for Managerial Effectiveness (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.
    Zweifel, Thomas D. 1998. "Be Still and Hear: The art and science of listening is good business," Christian Science Monitor, September 22.
    Zweifel, Thomas D. 1998. "Listen Up!" Fast Company, December.

    Martin Luther King, Bill Clinton. Richard Parsons/AOL, Liz Claiborne, Kodak.

    Session 6: Thursday - October 10, 2002

    Leadership and Empowerment / Coaching

    Leaders leading leaders. Coaching vs. management. Coaching vs. training.

    Flaherty, James. 1999. Coaching: Evoking Excellence in Others. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
    Northouse, chapters 7 (Leader-Member Exchange Theory).
    Evered, Roger D. and James C. Selman. 1989. "Coaching and the Art of Management," Organizational Dynamics (Autumn), 16-32.

    Read (recommended):
    Graen, G.B. and M. Uhl-Bien. 1995. "Relationship-based Approach to Leadership: Development of a leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective." Leadership Quarterly 6(2). 219-247.
    Rapaport, Richard. 1993. "To Build a Winning Team: An Interview with Head Coach Bill Walsh," HBR Reprint #93108.
    Rothstein, Lawrence R. 1995. "The Empowerment Effort That Came Undone," HBR Case (Jan-Feb), 20-23.

    Nelson Mandela. Head coach Bill Walsh. Jack Welch/GE.

    Session 7: Thursday - October 17, 2002

    Leadership and Organizational Change

    Leadership and change management. Models of change. Why change programs don't produce change.

    Ancona, Deborah, Thomas Kochan, Maureen Scully, John Van Maanen, D. Eleanor Westney. 1996. Managing for the Future, Module 11: "Managing Change in Organizations." 1-54. Cincinnati OH: South-Western College Publishing.
    Beer, Michael, Russell A. Eisenstat and Bert Spector. 1990. "Why Change Programs Don't Produce Change." HBR Reprint # 90601, 158-166
    Schaffer, Robert H. and Harvey A. Thompson. 1992. "Successful Change Programs Begin with Results," HBR Reprint #92108.
    Weick, Karl E. 1996. "Drop Your Tools: An Allegory for Organizational Studies," Administrative Science Quarterly, 301-313.

    Read (recommended):
    Goss, Tracy, Richard Pascale, and Anthony Athos. 1993. "The Reinvention Roller Coaster: Risking the Present for a Powerful Future," HBR Reprint #93603.
    Kotter, John P. and James K. Leahy. 1993. "Changing the Culture at British Airways," Harvard Business School Case, 9-419-009

    Mikhail Gorbachev, Lou Gerstner and IBM, Sir Colin Marshall and British Airways.

    Session 8: Thursday - October 24, 2002

    Leadership and Vision / Strategy MOVED TO 10/31, 1230-2PM

    Vision vs. dream. Vision vs. prediction. Basics of strategy: core competencies, 5-forces model. Strategists vs. managers. Strategy-in-action.

    Northouse, chapter 5 (Contingency Theory).
    The Hunger Project. 1991. "Planning-in-Action: an innovative approach to human development." New York: The Hunger Project.
    Hamel, Gary and C.K. Prahalad. 1989. "Strategic Intent," HBR Reprint #89308 (May-Jun), 63-76.
    Hinterhuber and Popp. 1992. "Are You a Strategist or Just a Manager?" HBR Reprint # 92104, 105-113.

    Read (recommended):
    Beers, Michael C. 1996. "The Strategy That Wouldn't Travel," Harvard Business Review November-December 1996. (Reprint #96602)
    Fiedler, F.E. 1964. "A Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness," in Berkowitz, L. (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. New York: Academic Press. Vol. 1, 149-190.
    Hamel, Gary. 1996. "Strategy as Revolution," HBR (Jul-Aug), 69-82.

    Winston Churchill, Bill Gates, Andy Grove/Intel. "The Strategy That Wouldn't Travel."

    Session 9: Thursday - November 7, 2002

    MIDTERM QUIZ / Leadership and Globalization

    Leadership and globalization. Costs of cultures colliding. What is culture? Decoding national or corporate culture. Building a global leadership culture. Managing global high performance teams.

    Handy, Charles. 1995. "Trust and the Virtual Organization," Harvard Business Review, May-June. 40-50. (Reprint 95304)
    Northouse, chapters 4 (Situational Approach).
    Prahalad, C.K. and Lieberthal. 1998. "The End of Corporate Imperialism," Harvard Business Review, July-August. 69-79. (Reprint 98408)
    Zweifel, Thomas D. 2002. Culture Clash: Managing the Global High-Performance Team. New York: Swiss Consulting Group.

    Read (recommended):
    Blanchard, Ken, D. Zigarmi and R. Nelson. 1985. Leadership and the One-Minute Manager: Increasing effectiveness through situational leadership. New York: William Morrow.
    Gardner, Howard. 1995. Leading Minds, Ch.14: "Jean Monnet and Mahatma Gandhi: Leadership Beyond National Boundaries."
    Schell, Michael and Charlene M. Solomon. 1997. Capitalizing on the Global Workforce. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Slater, Robert. 1999. Jack Welch and the GE Way: Management Insights and Leadership Secrets of the Legendary CEO. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Zweifel, Thomas D. 1995. "New, Genuine Leaders in Africa," Christian Science Monitor, September 6.

    Jean Monnet, Mohandas Gandhi, Douglas Daft/Coca-Cola, Jack Welch/GE, Ted Turner/CNN.

    Session 10: Thursday - November 14, 2002

    Political and Public Sector Leadership

    Legal-rational vs. charismatic leadership. Bureaucracy and leadership. Pitfalls.

    Allison, Graham. 1971. Essence of Decision: Explaining The Cuban Missile Crisis.
    Weber, Max. "Bureaucracy" in From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1946. Paper ed., 1958, pp. 196-244.
    Jick, Todd D. 1995. "Lyndon Baines Johnson," Harvard Business School Case 1-995-008.

    Read (recommended):
    Manchester, William. 1989. The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill; Alone: 1932-1940. New York: Delta.
    Mandela, Nelson. 1995. The Long March to Freedom. New York: Little Brown & Co.
    Neustadt, Richard. 1990. Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents.
    Wilson, Woodrow. "The Study of Administration," Political Science Quarterly 2 (June 1887): 197-222.

    Winston Churchill, John F. Kennedy vs. Lyndon B. Johnson, Mohandas Gandhi, Mao Tse-Dong, Nelson Mandela.

    Session 11: Thursday - November 21, 2002

    Business Leadership

    Entrepreneurs vs. corporate leaders. Business vs. non-business leadership. Pitfalls of business leadership.

    Charan, Ram and Geoffrey Colvin. 1999. "Why CEOs Fail," Fortune, 21 June. 68-82.
    Gardner. 1995. Leading Minds, Ch.7: "Alfred P. Sloan, Jr.: The Business of America."

    Read (recommended):
    Brands. 1999. Masters of Enterprise. New York: Free Press.
    Slater, Robert. 1999. Jack Welch and the GE Way: Management Insights and Leadership Secrets of the Legendary CEO. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Entrepreneurs: John J. Astor, Bill Gates/Microsoft, Andy Grove/Intel, Liz Claiborne, Ted Turner/CNN. Corporate leaders: Alfred Sloan/GM, Thomas Watson/IBM, Robert Woodruff/Coca-Cola, Jack Welch/GE. Jill Barad and Mattel: What went wrong?

    Session 12: Thursday - November 28, 2002


    Session 13: Thursday - December 5, 2002

    Nonprofit Leadership

    Principles of nonprofit leadership and management. Pitfalls of nonprofit leadership.

    The Hunger Project. 1995. "Ending Hunger and the New Human Agenda." New York:
    The Hunger Project. 1996. "Unleashing the Human Spirit: Principles and Methodology of The Hunger Project." New York:
    Rao, Srikumar S. 1998. "Emperor of Peace Lives Again!" Forbes, September 7, 1998.

    Read (recommended):
    Drucker, Peter F., Managing the Nonprofit Sector: Principles and Practices. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 1990.
    Ellis, Susan J., From the Top Down: The Executive Role in Volunteer Program Success, Philadelphia, PA: Energize, Inc, Revised Edition 1996.

    Pope John XXIII, Joan Holmes/The Hunger Project, Mohamed Yunus/Grameen Bank.

    Session 14: Thursday - December 12, 2002

    Women and Minorities Leadership

    A history of invisible leadership. Male vs. female leadership -- gender differences in managerial behavior?

    Northouse, chapter 11 (Women and Leadership).
    Holmes, Joan. 1995. "Women's Leadership and the New Human Agenda," Statement to the Fourth Conference on Women, Beijing.
    Ibarra, Herminia and Kristin M. Daly. 1995. "Gender Differences in Managerial Behavior: The Ongoing Debate," HBS Case 495038.

    Read (recommended):
    Branch, Shelley. 1989. Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954-63.
    Rosener, J.B. "Ways Women Lead." HBR, 11/90. 119-125.
    Mainiero, "Getting Anointed for Advancement: The Case of Executive Women." (AME 1994, V. 8, 3).
    Sargent, A. 1981. The Androgynous Manager. New York: American Management Association Communications.

    Eleanor Roosevelt. Carleton Fiorina/Hewlett Packard. "Gender Differences in Managerial Behavior."

    Session 15: Wednesday - December 18, 2002


    Class Plan:
    Final papers must be submitted by email to tdz2@columbia AND as hard copy in the last class.

    Session 16: Thursday - December 19, 2002

    Leadership and Stillness / Conclusions&Prognoses

    Summary. Discussion. Conclusions. Preparation for final exam.

    Stillness, the compass of leaders. Psychodynamic approach. Invisible leadership.

    Northouse, chapter 10 (Psychodynamic Approach).
    Muoio, Anna. "We all go to the same place. Let us go there slowly." Fast Company, May 2000. 194.
    Zweifel, Thomas D. The Virtual Leader. Manuscript. Chapter 12: "Stillness: The Compass of Leaders."

    Read (recommended):
    Freud, Sigmund. 1938. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud. A.A. Brill, ed. New York: Modern Library.
    Gandhi, Mohandas K. [1927] 1992. An Autobiography, Or The Story of my experiments with truth. Ahmedabad: The Navajivan Trust.
    Jung, Carl Gustav. 1923. Psychological Types. New York: Harcourt and Brace.
    Mandela, Nelson R. 1994. Long Walk to Freedom. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

    Winston Churchill, Mohandas Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King.

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